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Lenses are essentially of two main categories, either fixed focal length or variable focal length or zoom lenses. Zoom lenses are available in many different focal length ranges, some popular ranges are as follows 10-20mm, 17-55mm, 70-200mm, 200-400mm.
Generally zoom lenses are available with apertures of f/2.8 or greater, however fixed focal length lenses can be available with larger apertures of f/1.4 and may be better for low or available light photography. Zoom lenses are great for landscape photography, where you may need to vary the angle of view to accommodate different aspects.